Bribery among government officials, what is a leap-second, connect air pollution and strokes,  ocean resources. 


International Ocean day was celebrated on 8 June 2015. About half of the world's oxygen comes from the oceans. South Africa's oceans are unique, because the warm and cool oceans that meet each other on our south coast create a rich biodiversity. South Africans don't do enough to protect our oceans, and up to 40% of our oceans are over exploited (RSG & DSTV Insig, 8 June 2015).

Recent research indicates that large-scale bribery among government officials who monitor fishing along the SA coast contributes to over exploitation of fishing resources. These incidents of bribery prevent implementation of the regulations that are intended to keep fishing at sustainable levels. Some of these officials act as informants and warn poachers against joint policing actions in advance, while others are also involved in illegal fishing activities (Anna-Karin Lundell, Our Fragile Planet, no 17, May 2015).

For the first time in history, in 2015, there were more people without jobs in the 20-24 age group than people who were actually employed. A huge 44% of the population has no income, including 5,5 million people without jobs still looking for employment and 2,4 million who have stopped looking for employment. A perfect storm is brewing (Herman Gillomee, Rapport Weekliks, 31 May & 7 June 2015).

What is LPG? Liquid petroleum gas (butane and propane) is a by-product in the oil refining process and in the process where natural gas (methane) is converted into fuel. It is heavier than air and has a higher energy content than natural gas (Sake-Rapport, 14 June 2015).

What is a 'leap' second (Afr skrikkelsekonde)? When sensitive time systems crashed in 1972, it was noticed that there was a 10 second deficit between earth rotation and time mechanisms (sun and watch time). From then on, a 'leap' second was added at intervals during specific years, just after midnight on 30 June. Six months ago, the international earth rotation service announced that a 'leap' second would be added on 30 June 2015, for the first time since 2012 (RSG, 30 June 2015).

Air pollution is linked to an increased risk of stroke, a large global study in the British Medical Journal suggests. (Source:

Although mampoer is synonymous with the Boere culture, it actually comes from the Pedis. It was named after the Pedi chief, Mampuru, who made punch with a 'kick' from peaches (Rondrits Rapport, 31 May 2015). More information: 012 736 2035/6.

According to Prof Salomé Kruger of the Faculty of Health Sciences at NWU (Rapport Beleef, 17 May 2015), one can cure one's sweet tooth by following a few simple steps: Gradually use less sugar in your coffee. If you normally use three teaspoons of sugar, decrease this to two teaspoons for two weeks, then one teaspoon for two weeks, and eventually none. Drink water when you become thirsty. Put cucumber pieces or mint leaves in your glass of water to give it a better taste, or have some flavoured tea – it has a sweet taste without you having to add sugar.